Thermodynamics: The Physics of Heat
Mr. Miller

Physics of Heat – Study Guide

Things you need to know:

• Memorize the following formulas, know what they mean, and how to use them to calculate any missing variable:
• ΔL = aLΔt
• ΔL = change in length
• a = coefficient of linear expansion, expressed in scientific notation
• L = original length
• Δt = change in temperature
• Q = cmΔt
• Q = amount of heat, measured in calories
• c = specific heat, measured in cal/g°C
• m = mass, measured in grams
• Δt = change in temperature, measured in °C
• Density = mass/volume
• Thermal Capacity = specific heat x mass
• °F = (9/5 x °C) + 32
• °C = 5/9 x (°F – 32)
• Be able to remember major aspects from each lab and demonstration, particularly observations and conclusions
• Many questions on the final exam will be taken from previous quizzes – REVIEW YOUR QUIZZES
• Understand and be able to apply the concepts of:
• Sensation of warmth depends upon:
• Initial temp of skin and object
• Heat conductivity of skin and object
• How long the skin and object are in contact
• Sensitivity of the skin (number and type of nerve endings)
• Melting point
• Freezing point
• Boiling point
• Condensing point
• The three ways heat moves: Conduction, Convection, Radiation, with examples for each
• How a Thermos minimizes heat transfer
• The concept of Latent heat of vaporization (liquid to gas) and fusion (solid to liquid)
• Latent heat of vaporization for 1g of water is 540 cal
• Latent heat of fusion for 1g water is 80 cal
• Expansion of materials under heat (solids, liquids, gasses)
• Heat conductivity, examples of substances with high and low heat conductivity
• Specific heat as amount of heat required to raise 1g of a substance by 1°C
• The special properties of water:
• Exists as solid, liquid and gas (ice, water, steam) in the range of normal Earthly temperatures
• Density of water greatest at 4°C and consequences of this fact for freezing lakes and oceans
• Density of water is defined as 1 gram/ml
• Specific heat of water is defined as 1 cal/g°C
• Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales with major points for water in each and body temperature
• How to use the formulas to convert from °C to °F and back and between °C and °K
• The scientific method’s stages (Have a question about the world, Hypothesis, Experiment, Revise Hypothesis, Repeat)
• Stages of how to write up a lab (Intro/Purpose, Materials, Procedure, Observations/Data, Analysis/Conclusion)
• How to convert from decimal to scientific notation
• How to convert from scientific notation to decimal
• Convection and its relationship to density
• Difference between heat and temperature
• The concept of a calorie and a food Calorie (food Calorie is 1000 calories)
• Thermal capacity – a measure of how much heat a mass can contain relative to others at the same temperature
• Relationship of pressure and temperature
• Relationship of pressure and volume
• Relationship of volume and temperature
• How these three fit together in Boyle’s Law: Tk=PV
• The basic idea behind how steam engines and 4 stroke combustion engines work
• How a refrigerator works

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